The importance of immunohistochemical marker in the detection and identification of lung cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer worldwide and the subtype of adenocarcinoma is increasing in incidence in many countries, especially among women.

Lung adenocarcinomas easily become metastatic and, as the diversity of chemotherapeutic agents increases, with differential efficacy against cancers from different sites, the importance of determining the primary source of a metastatic tumor has increased.

Genetic studies have shown that TTF-1 is essential for the proper development of the thyroid gland and lungs, and that an abnormal expression may underlie a series of congenital anomalies. TTF-1 has been found among non-small cell lung carcinomas in up to 76% of adenocarcinomas, but rarely in squamous cell carcinomas.

TTF-1 is a transcription factor expressed mainly in the epithelial cells of the lungs and thyroid. The identification and differential diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma are sometimes difficult, and TTF-1 is most commonly used to distinguish primary lung adenocarcinoma from metastatic carcinomas, which makes it a sensitive and specific marker in differential diagnosis of primary adenocarcinomas and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, which is why it is important to implement it as daily clinical practice.

Advances in molecular biology have allowed us to better understand the origin, development and evolution of lung cancer. The new knowledge in radiology, pathology and oncology have marked the importance of the approach of the patient with lung cancer and, among other things, have caused the need for changes in the classification of lung carcinoma, as well as a greater specificity at the moment of the diagnosis. The appearance of different therapies according to the histological type and the molecular characteristics of the tumor.

Here in Althian we have protocols in which we have used molecular techniques for the identification of the biomarkers they are looking for. So, they will be able to identify a specific type of lung cancer for a specific treatment. Feel free to contact us for more information regarding our experience with biomarkers in clinical trials.